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Burundi on the brink [entire set] 2016

Date of realization: February/March 2016

Country: Burundi

Bujumbura, February-March 2016. Since over a year, the country has been facing a situation of political and social crisis following the candidacy for a third term by President Pierre Nkurunziza. This unconstitutional act originated violent protests by the population.
After the failed coup of May 13 2015, led by Major General Godefroid Niyombare, the demonstrations continued until January 2016, when the government started a brutal repression on the population living in neighborhoods considered mainly anti-governmental (Cibitoke, Mutakura , Musaga, Nyakabiga, etc.). The inhabitants of these neighborhoods are suspected of supporting rebel groups, including the Red Tabara, formed in early 2016 with the intention of overturning the government.
Although in the city one can breathe a situation of apparent calm, at night the police carries out raids in these neighborhoods, arresting people indiscriminately even if unrelated to the activities of rebels. Repression and control over the population is also exercised through the Imbonerakure, the youth wing of the majority party (CNDD-FDD), which often uses violent methods.
Night clashes and attacks with grenades are frequent in the city and they often affect the civilian population. The Police reports that the attacks are made by rebels, who instead claim to never make attempts against the civilian population.
Due to the crisis in the country, over 240,000 people poured between Rwanda and Tanzania to the refugee camps set up on border areas. Among these, there are many journalists and intellectuals opposed to the Nkurunziza government, which during 2015 has banned and destroyed the city's radio stations.
Since the beginning of the crisis, the poverty rate in the country has increased significantly. Even the infrastructures are not sufficient for the needs of the population, both from a medical and food point of view.
It is estimated that since April 2015 the civilian victims are more than 400. Humanitarian organizations accuse the government of having thrown the bodies into several mass graves.
On the 22nd of February 2016, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited the country to discuss the current crisis. On that occasion, President Nkurunziza said he intended to release 2000 prisoners, who in the last year had been arrested along with another thousand people.
High army officers gathered at the airport to welcome the President of Mauritania, arrived in Burundi with a delegation of the African Union (Gabon, Senegal, Ethiopia and South Africa) to discuss the resolution of the crisis in the country.
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High army officers gathered at the airport to welcome the President of Mauritania, arrived in Burundi with a delegation of the African Union (Gabon, Senegal, Ethiopia and South Africa) to discuss the resolution of the crisis in the country.
Corpse found in a district in the administrative area of Murengeza. The Police declares that the man was killed during an attempted robbery in a rice warehouse. The population states that nothing was stolen.
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Corpse found in a district in the administrative area of Murengeza. The Police declares that the man was killed during an attempted robbery in a rice warehouse. The population states that nothing was stolen.
Burial chamber prepared for the funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta, killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived. The police declared that the student was in possession of a grenade, while relatives and many people of the neighborhood claimed the opposite.
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Burial chamber prepared for the funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta, killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived. The police declared that the student was in possession of a grenade, while relatives and many people of the neighborhood claimed the opposite.
The central market area of Bujumbura after an attack with grenades by unknown assailants. The Police reported that the attack was carried out by rebels, who instead claim to never make attempts against the civilian population.
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The central market area of Bujumbura after an attack with grenades by unknown assailants. The Police reported that the attack was carried out by rebels, who instead claim to never make attempts against the civilian population.
In the early morning, in the Kigobe quarter a pickup provides aid after a grenade attack. Two people died and one was wounded. The Police reported that the attack was carried out by rebels, who instead claim to never make attacks against the civilian population.
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In the early morning, in the Kigobe quarter a pickup provides aid after a grenade attack. Two people died and one was wounded. The Police reported that the attack was carried out by rebels, who instead claim to never make attacks against the civilian population.
Woman inside the tent of a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. After an initial aid, from January 2016 people have not received help anymore, neither medical nor dietary.
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Woman inside the tent of a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. After an initial aid, from January 2016 people have not received help anymore, neither medical nor dietary.
The President of Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza, in office since 2005 and running for a third term in 2015. This unconstitutional act was strongly contested and led to the current instability in the country.
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The President of Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza, in office since 2005 and running for a third term in 2015. This unconstitutional act was strongly contested and led to the current instability in the country.
Reception organized by the government for the visit of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who arrived in the country to discuss the current crisis.
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Reception organized by the government for the visit of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who arrived in the country to discuss the current crisis.
The headquarters of Insanganiro Radio, destroyed by the police during the events of 2015, is being renovated for reopening.
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The headquarters of Insanganiro Radio, destroyed by the police during the events of 2015, is being renovated for reopening.
City center of Bujumbura in the early hours of the morning, before the market opens.
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City center of Bujumbura in the early hours of the morning, before the market opens.
A resident of the Mutakura district, arrested and detained with no reason during a night raid by the police. During these raids, many innocent people are arrested for the simple fact of living in a neighborhood considered in opposition to the government.
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A resident of the Mutakura district, arrested and detained with no reason during a night raid by the police. During these raids, many innocent people are arrested for the simple fact of living in a neighborhood considered in opposition to the government.
Policemen on patrol following the attack with grenades at a gas station in the center of Bujumbura.
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Policemen on patrol following the attack with grenades at a gas station in the center of Bujumbura.
Burial of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
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Burial of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
Primary school in the region of Cibitoke, north of Bujumbura. Children have to share textbooks due to the scarcity of school supplies provided by the government.
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Primary school in the region of Cibitoke, north of Bujumbura. Children have to share textbooks due to the scarcity of school supplies provided by the government.
Four rebels of the Red Tabara group, during a press conference by the police after their arrest.
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Four rebels of the Red Tabara group, during a press conference by the police after their arrest.
Pregnant woman in the Kamenge area, while digging in a pile of garbage on the side of a road.
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Pregnant woman in the Kamenge area, while digging in a pile of garbage on the side of a road.
Three men at work in the gold mines of the Cibitoke region.
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Three men at work in the gold mines of the Cibitoke region.
Volleyball match among the entourage of the ruling party.
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Volleyball match among the entourage of the ruling party.
Garbage dump in the outskirts of Bujumbura.
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Garbage dump in the outskirts of Bujumbura.
Protestant Church between the quarters of Ngagara and Cibitoke.
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Protestant Church between the quarters of Ngagara and Cibitoke.
Panoramic view of the Bujumbura city center.
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Panoramic view of the Bujumbura city center.
Inside a house in the area of Ruyaga, relatives and friends of a man who was killed during the night in his home gather together.
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Inside a house in the area of Ruyaga, relatives and friends of a man who was killed during the night in his home gather together.
Cathedral of Maria Regina Mundi in Bujumbura, during the celebration of some funerals, including the one of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
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Cathedral of Maria Regina Mundi in Bujumbura, during the celebration of some funerals, including the one of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
Children sick in a clinic in the Kinama district. Hospitals do not offer free health care and the majority of patients opt for small clinics that offer cheaper treatment. When patients are not able to pay, many hospitals and clinics hold them, creating a problem of overcrowding in the rooms.
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Children sick in a clinic in the Kinama district. Hospitals do not offer free health care and the majority of patients opt for small clinics that offer cheaper treatment. When patients are not able to pay, many hospitals and clinics hold them, creating a problem of overcrowding in the rooms.
Rehabilitation clinic of Bujumbura: orthopedic care to a newborn. The clinic does not receive funding from the government and is supported by foreign charities.
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Rehabilitation clinic of Bujumbura: orthopedic care to a newborn. The clinic does not receive funding from the government and is supported by foreign charities.
Boy working in a soap factory in Bujumbura.
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Boy working in a soap factory in Bujumbura.
Man sick of malaria in a clinic in the Kinama district. Hospitals do not offer free health care and the majority of patients opt for small clinics that offer cheaper treatment. When patients are not able to pay, many hospitals and clinics hold them, creating a problem of overcrowding in the rooms.
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Man sick of malaria in a clinic in the Kinama district. Hospitals do not offer free health care and the majority of patients opt for small clinics that offer cheaper treatment. When patients are not able to pay, many hospitals and clinics hold them, creating a problem of overcrowding in the rooms.
Policemen on patrol in the center of Bujumbura.
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Policemen on patrol in the center of Bujumbura.
Rehabilitation clinic in Bujumbura. After two decades of civil war in the country, the number of maimed and disabled has remained very high. The clinic has no government aid and pays daily care to the disabled and mutilated.
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Rehabilitation clinic in Bujumbura. After two decades of civil war in the country, the number of maimed and disabled has remained very high. The clinic has no government aid and pays daily care to the disabled and mutilated.
Woman at work in a cultivated field in front of her house.
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Woman at work in a cultivated field in front of her house.
Garbage dump in the outskirts of Bujumbura. A group of children works in a load of garbage brought from the city. They are usually paid by the owner of the truck.
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Garbage dump in the outskirts of Bujumbura. A group of children works in a load of garbage brought from the city. They are usually paid by the owner of the truck.
Welcome military parade to the President of Mauritania, who arrived in Burundi with the delegation of the African Union to discuss the resolution of the crisis in the country.
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Welcome military parade to the President of Mauritania, who arrived in Burundi with the delegation of the African Union to discuss the resolution of the crisis in the country.
Official Speech by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, held beside the President of Burundi, Pierre Nkurunziza.
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Official Speech by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon, held beside the President of Burundi, Pierre Nkurunziza.
Agathon Rwasa, leader of the FNL opposition party, which had fought in the burundian Civil War and that in 2015 supported the protests against President Nkurunziza's third-term bid. His reputation as an opponent has been questioned since, last year, the current government has appointed him deputy speaker.
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Agathon Rwasa, leader of the FNL opposition party, which had fought in the burundian Civil War and that in 2015 supported the protests against President Nkurunziza's third-term bid. His reputation as an opponent has been questioned since, last year, the current government has appointed him deputy speaker.
 Funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta in the cemetery on the north of Bujumbura. The man was killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived. The police declared that the student was in possession of a grenade, while relatives and many people of the neighborhood claimed the opposite.
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Funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta in the cemetery on the north of Bujumbura. The man was killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived. The police declared that the student was in possession of a grenade, while relatives and many people of the neighborhood claimed the opposite.
The Chairman of the CNC (National Council of Communications) of Burundi, Richard Giramahoro, announces at a press conference the reopening of two city radio stations.
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The Chairman of the CNC (National Council of Communications) of Burundi, Richard Giramahoro, announces at a press conference the reopening of two city radio stations.
Woman at work in a luxury hotel in Bujumbura. In the country there is a situation of extreme poverty for the population, compared to a small percentage of very rich people.
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Woman at work in a luxury hotel in Bujumbura. In the country there is a situation of extreme poverty for the population, compared to a small percentage of very rich people.
Pool of a luxury hotel in Bujumbura. In the country there is a situation of extreme poverty for the population, compared to a small percentage of very rich people.
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Pool of a luxury hotel in Bujumbura. In the country there is a situation of extreme poverty for the population, compared to a small percentage of very rich people.
During heavy rains, part of the streets of Bujumbura is flooded because of their mismanagement.
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During heavy rains, part of the streets of Bujumbura is flooded because of their mismanagement.
People in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. After an initial aid, from January 2016 people have not received help anymore, neither medical nor dietary.
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People in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. After an initial aid, from January 2016 people have not received help anymore, neither medical nor dietary.
Street market in the Kamenge district. Much of the population tries to grow and sell even small amounts of vegetables.
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Street market in the Kamenge district. Much of the population tries to grow and sell even small amounts of vegetables.
People in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. The health conditions of those who live here are poor.
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People in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. The health conditions of those who live here are poor.
Mother and daughter in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. The daughter is cared for by her mother, because seriously ill.
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Mother and daughter in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. The daughter is cared for by her mother, because seriously ill.
People in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. After an initial aid, from January 2016 people have not received help anymore, neither medical nor dietary.
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People in a camp that was set up following a landslide in November 2015. After an initial aid, from January 2016 people have not received help anymore, neither medical nor dietary.
Three men suspected of belonging to a group of rebels are being arrested in the Musaga district.
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Three men suspected of belonging to a group of rebels are being arrested in the Musaga district.
Owner of a bar closed by the police during demonstrations in the Cibitoke district.
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Owner of a bar closed by the police during demonstrations in the Cibitoke district.
Burial chamber in the Prince Regent Charles Hospital morgue for the death of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
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Burial chamber in the Prince Regent Charles Hospital morgue for the death of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
Burial chamber prepared for the funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta, killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived. The police declared that the student was in possession of a grenade, while relatives and many people of the neighborhood claimed the opposite.
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Burial chamber prepared for the funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta, killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived. The police declared that the student was in possession of a grenade, while relatives and many people of the neighborhood claimed the opposite.
R. M., whose wife, a teacher, was killed by the police and Imbonerakure while she was at home alone, because she was considered a collaborator of rebels.
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R. M., whose wife, a teacher, was killed by the police and Imbonerakure while she was at home alone, because she was considered a collaborator of rebels.
Burial chamber in the Prince Regent Charles Hospital morgue for the death of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
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Burial chamber in the Prince Regent Charles Hospital morgue for the death of Don Chalex Ntungane, a seven year old boy who was killed by a grenade during an attack.
People in front of the old central market in Bujumbura, burned down in February 2013.
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People in front of the old central market in Bujumbura, burned down in February 2013.
Seizure of arms and military uniforms, unearthed after the arrest of three suspected rebels in the Musaga district.
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Seizure of arms and military uniforms, unearthed after the arrest of three suspected rebels in the Musaga district.
Soldiers on patrol outside the Bujumbura airport after the departure of the convoy of the United Nations.
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Soldiers on patrol outside the Bujumbura airport after the departure of the convoy of the United Nations.
High officers of the army at the Bujumbura airport, after the welcome ceremony for the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who arrived in the country to discuss the current crisis.
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High officers of the army at the Bujumbura airport, after the welcome ceremony for the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who arrived in the country to discuss the current crisis.
Mother of four children at work in a field in the Ruyaga area. Often women, widows or abandoned, found themselves having to look after the children, even in a situation of general lack of work.
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Mother of four children at work in a field in the Ruyaga area. Often women, widows or abandoned, found themselves having to look after the children, even in a situation of general lack of work.
Main road between Bujumbura and Uvira (DRC). Given the lack of taxation for people with physical disabilities, many disabled men transport and trade drinks and other goods between the two countries.
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Main road between Bujumbura and Uvira (DRC). Given the lack of taxation for people with physical disabilities, many disabled men transport and trade drinks and other goods between the two countries.
Production of bricks in the outskirts of Bujumbura.
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Production of bricks in the outskirts of Bujumbura.
Garbage dump in the outskirts of Bujumbura. Many people look for items to resell or reuse.
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Garbage dump in the outskirts of Bujumbura. Many people look for items to resell or reuse.
People at work in the gold mines of the Cibitoke region.
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People at work in the gold mines of the Cibitoke region.
A 15 year old boy, shot in the throat by unknown assailants during the night while he was sleeping in the streets, received only first aid at the hospital. Unable to pay further care, he remained there for days hoping to be assisted.
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A 15 year old boy, shot in the throat by unknown assailants during the night while he was sleeping in the streets, received only first aid at the hospital. Unable to pay further care, he remained there for days hoping to be assisted.
Working area of ​​a blacksmith in the Musaga district.
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Working area of ​​a blacksmith in the Musaga district.
Area of Ruyaga: corpse of a man who was killed in his own house during the night.
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Area of Ruyaga: corpse of a man who was killed in his own house during the night.
Group of women in the village of Ruyaga, gathered outside the house of a man who was killed the previous night.
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Group of women in the village of Ruyaga, gathered outside the house of a man who was killed the previous night.
Panoramic view of Bujumbura.
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Panoramic view of Bujumbura.
Manufacturer of cassava flour in the Kinama district.
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Manufacturer of cassava flour in the Kinama district.
Headquarters of the opposition party FNL in Bujumbura.
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Headquarters of the opposition party FNL in Bujumbura.
Early morning traders set their stalls in front of the old central market of Bujumbura, burned down in February 2013.
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Early morning traders set their stalls in front of the old central market of Bujumbura, burned down in February 2013.
Family of homeless living in a small green area on the roadside.
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Family of homeless living in a small green area on the roadside.
Portrait of President Nkurunziza inside a government office in the administrative area of Murengeza.
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Portrait of President Nkurunziza inside a government office in the administrative area of Murengeza.
Woman walking in the cemetery of Bujumbura, after the funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta, who was killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived.
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Woman walking in the cemetery of Bujumbura, after the funeral of Eddy Ntakiyiruta, who was killed by the police during a search in the streets of the neighborhood where he lived.
The son of a man killed in his own house during the night, in the area of Ruyaga.
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The son of a man killed in his own house during the night, in the area of Ruyaga.
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